Material Research

FELT

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Felt is a textile that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibres together. Felt can be made of natural fibres such as wool or synthetic fibres such as acrylic. There are many different types of felts for industrial, technical, designer and craft applications. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials. Felt can vary in terms of fibre content, colour, size, thickness, density and more factors depending on the use of the felt.

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Artificial leather

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Artificial leather is a fabric or finish intended to substitute for leather in fields such as upholsteryclothing, and fabrics, and other uses where a leather-like finish is required but the actual material is cost-prohibitive, unsuitable, or unusable for ethical reasons.

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CARPET 

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carpet is a textile floor covering consisting of an upper layer of "pile" attached to a backing. The pile is generally either made from wool or a man made fibre such as polypropylenenylon or polyester and usually consists of twisted tufts which are often heat-treated to maintain their structure.

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Carpet types

Woven

The carpet is produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric. The pile can be plush or Berber. Plush carpet is a cut pile and Berber carpet is a loop pile. There are new styles of carpet combining the two styles called cut and loop carpeting. Normally many colored yarns are used and this process is capable of producing intricate patterns from predetermined designs (although some limitations apply to certain weaving methods with regard to accuracy of pattern within the carpet). These carpets are usually the most expensive due to the relatively slow speed of the manufacturing process. 

Needle felt

These carpets are more technologically advanced. Needle felts are produced by intermingling and felting individual synthetic fibers using barbed and forked needles forming an extremely durable carpet. These carpets are normally found in commercial settings such as hotels and restaurants where there is frequent traffic.

Knotted

On a knotted pile carpet (formally, a supplementary weft cut-loop pile carpet), the structural weft threads alternate with a supplementary weft that rises at right angles to the surface of the weave. This supplementary weft is attached to the warp by one of three knot types (see below), such as shag carpet which was popular in the 1970s, to form the pile or nap of the carpet. Knotting by hand is most prevalent in oriental rugs and carpets. Kashmir carpets are also hand-knotted.

Tufted

These are carpets that have their pile injected into a backing material, which is itself then bonded to a secondary backing made of a woven hessian weave or a man made alternative to provide stability. The pile is often sheared in order to achieve different textures. This is the most common method of manufacturing of domestic carpets for floor covering purposes in the world.

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Wool

 

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goatsmohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxenangora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids. Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped, it is elastic, and it grows in staples (clusters).

 

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Yarn

Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers.[32] As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil, or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fiber length. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp. This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a microeconomy in this area for many years.

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Material Library 

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Organic cotton

Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton and is grown in subtropical countries such as Turkey, China, USA from non genetically modified plants, that is to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides.[1] Its production also promotes and enhances biodiversity and biological cycles.[2][dead link] In the United States cotton plantations must also meet the requirements enforced by the National Organic Program (NOP), from the USDA, in order to be considered organic. This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops.[3][4] As of 2007, 265,517 bales of organic cotton were produced in 24 countries and worldwide production was growing at a rate of more than 50% per year.[

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ORGANIC COTTON

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ATLANTIC LEATHER

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FABRIC PERFORMANCE

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LEATHER

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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by the tanning of animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide. It can be produced through manufacturing processes ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.

Leather is used for various purposes including clothing (e.g. shoes, hats, jackets, skirts, trousers and belts), bookbindingleather wallpaper, and as a furniture covering. It is produced in a wide variety of types and styles and is decorated by a wide range of techniques.

The difference between full-grain leather and top grain leather is that full-grain is made from whole grains, top-grain is not and is real leather.

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Neoprene

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Neoprene or polychloroprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene.[1] Neoprene exhibits good chemical stability, and maintains flexibility over a wide temperature range. It is used in a wide variety of applications, such as laptop sleeves, orthopedic braces (wrist, knee, etc.), electrical insulation, liquid and sheet applied elastomeric membranes or flashings, and automotive fan belts.

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UNDERLAY

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Underlay or underlayment[1] generally refers to a thin layer of cushioning made of materials such as sponge rubberfoam, felt, or crumb rubber; this material is laid beneath carpeting to provide comfort underfoot, to reduce wear on the carpet, and to provide insulation against soundmoisture, and heat.[2] In general, it is a layer which is underneath another layer,[2] so underlay is thus also used to describe many different surface-covering products.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersion of the seeds.

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Spacer

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POLYEASTER

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FOAMS

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FABRIC PERFORMANCE

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I went to CSM Material Library. I was trying to find the right material. I found out some fabric feels like felt. I also found out some interesting material like Heatset Polyester. It feels like sponge when I squeeze it. I think I can also think about whether I can use it as the outer layer of my design. And maybe it will be interesting If I add some foams into my design, because this kind of material which is soft could make people feel comfortable. The Organic Cotton felt really soft and comfortable. I think the best part of this material is making people feel like at home and comfortable, but It is too soft to maintain the shape I want. The 100% Polyester material felt a little bit uncomfortable but It feels like sponge.

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